My current set of standards and practices evolved from my volunteer work at a wildlife hospital, along with countless hours in the field. I’m grateful to the generous mentors who informed my work, and helped me become a more thoughtful and careful photographer.

Certified Community Active Wildlife Steward (Oct 2022)

Member NANPA Ethics Committee (2016 – 2020)

Related Content: Blog posts on the subject of ETHICS


I regularly donate my work and time for conservation and scientific projects, including volunteer hours with wildlife organizations.

I have a particular interest in urban-wildlife intersections — the ways wild animals manage to exist or thrive alongside us, and in our structured environments.

One of my favorite themes is reclamation and resilience — how nature can revive, relocate, and restore itself when given the opportunity, space, and help to do so.


• As a former member of the NANPA Ethics Committee, I use the NANPA Ethics Guidelines and the Audubon Guide to Ethical Photography as models.

• I photograph with long lenses and a teleconverter. My primary wildlife lenses are the m.zuiko 100-400mm (which has an effective 800mm reach) and the m.zuiko 300mm f/4 (effective 600mm w/2x crop factor),

• I don’t bait or lure wild animals like owls or foxes (Note: these practices are not legal in many areas)

• I don’t use calls or decoys, electronic or other

• I’m extra cautious about nesting/denning areas (see below)

• In macro photography of insects, I do not stage or move animals for images, nor use any artificial elements (spray bottles, etc)

 I align with the principles of compassionate conservation, as they challenge some of the longstanding and damaging norms about our interactions with other species. 


Human presence and attention to nests or dens presents various dangers. It can interrupt feeding, nurturing, and protective behaviors. In worst-case scenarios, it can lead to the endangerment and death of nestlings or baby animals. Humans can also create scent trails for predators, or alert predators to the location of babies.

There are settings like urban heron or seabird rookeries or particular situations where photography can be done safely.


I photograph animals in natural light, no flash. It’s less intrusive, and I enjoy the challenge of working with available light.


I’m protective of the wildlife I photograph. I frequently post just a general location, unless it’s safe to be more specific.

I don’t reveal locations of uncommon animals or charismatic birds like owls which tend to be relentlessly pursued once their location is known. I also refrain from posting locations of animals considered targets, trophy or otherwise, by hunters during hunting season. (The blog post below explains more of my stance on this.)

• Related: Wildlife Locations – When Sharing Endangers the Animals


Historically, it’s caused much harm to other species to deny them qualities and emotions that sometimes resemble ours. Although I can’t fully understand their lived experience and don’t pretend to, I also respect it, and try not to misinterpret or diminish.

• Related: The Benefits of Anthropomorphism